So suggests new research that tracked changes in two genes thought to help regulate brain growth, changes that appeared well after the rise of modern humans , years ago. That the defining feature of humans — our large brains — continued to evolve as recently as 5, years ago, and may be doing so today, promises to surprise the average person, if not biologists. Lahn and colleagues examined two genes, named microcephalin and ASPM, that are connected to brain size. If those genes don’t work, babies are born with severely small brains, called microcephaly. Using DNA samples from ethnically diverse populations, they identified a collection of variations in each gene that occurred with unusually high frequency. In fact, the variations were so common they couldn’t be accidental mutations but instead were probably due to natural selection, where genetic changes that are favorable to a species quickly gain a foothold and begin to spread, the researchers report. Lahn offers an analogy: Medieval monks would copy manuscripts and each copy would inevitably contain errors — accidental mutations.

African Kingdoms

Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as “Conventional Radiocarbon Age”.

Since the calibration curve IntCal also reports past atmospheric 14 C concentration using this conventional age, any conventional ages calibrated against the IntCal curve will produce a correct calibrated age. When a date is quoted, the reader should be aware that if it is an uncalibrated date a term used for dates given in radiocarbon years it may differ substantially from the best estimate of the actual calendar date, both because it uses the wrong value for the half-life of 14 C, and because no correction calibration has been applied for the historical variation of 14 C in the atmosphere over time.

Horus was often the ancient Egyptians’ national tutelary was usually depicted as a falcon-headed man wearing the pschent, or a red and white crown, as a symbol of kingship over the entire kingdom of Egypt.

Once Isis knew she was pregnant with Horus, she fled to the Nile Delta marshlands to hide from her brother Set , who jealously killed Osiris and who she knew would want to kill their son. Mythological roles in hieroglyphs Sky god Since Horus was said to be the sky, he was considered to also contain the sun and moon.

Later, the reason that the moon was not as bright as the sun was explained by a tale, known as The Contendings of Horus and Seth. In this tale, it was said that Set, the patron of Upper Egypt , and Horus, the patron of Lower Egypt , had battled for Egypt brutally, with neither side victorious, until eventually the gods sided with Horus. In the struggle, Set had lost a testicle, explaining why the desert, which Set represented, is infertile.

Horus’ left eye had also been gouged out, then a new eye was created by part of Khonsu , the moon god, and was replaced. The symbol is seen on images of Horus’ mother, Isis, and on other deities associated with her. Wadjet was a solar deity and this symbol began as her all-seeing eye. In early artwork, Hathor is also depicted with this eye.

Radiocarbon dating

He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and he died aged a hundred. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency due to his advanced age, and when he was gone the Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart amid bitter in-fighting to select his successor. Regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

In fact, there seems to have been a general climate-induced collapse around this time in the Middle East , as Sumerian cities were also affected in the twenty-second century BC.

Horus was often the ancient Egyptians’ national tutelary was usually depicted as a falcon-headed man wearing the pschent, or a red and white crown, as a symbol of kingship over the entire kingdom of Egypt.

We present the first copper isotope analyses of samples of Egyptian blue pigments. Abstract While the use of Egyptian blue EB as the earliest artificial pigment was common amongst ancient Mediterranean cultures throughout Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, and the Roman Empire, little is known about ancient production centres and the sources of raw materials. Variations in lead isotope LI ratios can be useful for fingerprinting the geological sources of copper metal, which has the potential to indicate local production or importation.

This method is here applied to copper- and silica-rich EB pigments in order to investigate the provenance of the copper component. For the first time, copper isotope analysis was also applied to EB pigments to facilitate future studies of copper isotopes in such materials. Variations in copper isotopes hold the potential to complement lead isotope-based provenance considerations.

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Of course they did, you might be saying. If you were anything like me, as a kid you may have loved the distinctively weird depictions in Egyptian art of their gods, jackal-headed Anubis, cat-headed Bastet, ibis-headed Thoth and all the rest, much more exciting in my opinion than the Greek gods, who were pretty much just naked people. To start off with, yes, Egyptian gods were often depicted in therianthrophic — part human, part animal form. Other gods are anthropomorphic — human in form — Isis, Osiris, Ptah and Atum are usually shown in this way.

Then there are theriomorphic depictions , where gods are shown entirely in animal form. These are quite common, and in fact were the most common representations of gods in the very earliest periods of Egyptian history.

The Evidences for a Recent Dating for Adam, about 14, to 15, years Before Present. A recent genetic study of human genes related to the brain concluded that possibly there appeared a “microcephalin variant (that) could have arisen anywhere from 14, to 60, years ago” and an “ASPM variant ranged from to 14, years” ago and “roughly correlating with the development of .

The image above is of the women including Salome at the tomb Mark The Gospel of the Egyptians is no longer extant but was mentioned by Hippolytus and Epiphanius. Most of our citations come from Clement of Alexandria, and there is also a reference in the Excerpts of Theodotus. The gospel was apparently used in Egypt in the second and third centuries. Ron Cameron provides these comments in his introduction in The Other Gospels: Despite the paucity of the extant fragments, the theology of the Gospel of the Egyptians is clear: This theology is reflected in speculative interpretations of the Genesis accounts of the Creation and the Fall Gen.

Salvation was thus thought to be the recapitulation of Adam and Eve’s primordial state, the removal of the body and the reunion of the sexes. This return to the primordial state was said to be accomplished – or at least symbolized – by baptism. In this respect, the Gospel of the Egyptians is to be compared with Paul’s letter to the Galatians Gal. Cameron goes on to note that the the “compositional technique” of expanding sayings into short dialogues is similar to that found in the Gospel of Thomas and in the Dialogue of The Savior “both in terms of form and structure and in terms of subject matter and content.

Older Women Dating Younger Men: Doomed from the Start or Happily Ever After in Cougarville?

Guanche mummies The mummies of the Canary Islands belong to the indigenous Guanche people and date to the time before 14th Century Spanish explorers settled in the area. All deceased people within the Guanche culture were mummified during this time, though the level of care taken with embalming and burial varied depending on individual social status.

Embalming was carried out by specialized groups, organized according to gender, who were considered unclean by the rest of the community. The techniques for embalming were similar to those of the ancient Egyptians; involving evisceration, preservation, and stuffing of the evacuated bodily cavities, then wrapping of the body in animal skins.

“Lower Egypt weeps. The entire palace is without its revenues. To it belong (by right) wheat and barley, geese and fish. The storehouse of the king is the common property of everyone.”.

Jim June 13, Marni I am sorry if I have taken to much space in your blog? Mae and I had a soulmate love affair! We had a couple drinks to celebrate then I carried Mae to bed. We made love and fell asleep in each others arms! I got up dressed went home jumped in the shower my wife joined me I carried her to bed and made love to her on my birthday in the morning! Jim June 10, Part 5 The reason it worked for Mae and I was the 38 years between us didnt bother us and since my wife was busy with work and allowed me to be oncall for Mae it was great.

Mae loved that from the first time I made love to her I would call her and thank her for a great time. I told her after the second month that I loved her and her response was I care for you very much. Finally on our 1st anniversary of our affair my wife was away on business Mae and I went out for dinner I brought her roses and back to my house.

I carried her up to bed and made love to her I told her I loved her and she finally said I love you. Mae and I make up a list of fix it projects to keep me coming for Mae! My wife having to go out of town on business even suggests I go to neighborhood pool party with Mae as my date! She tells Mae that I am her date and keep a certain blonde neighbor away from me!

Carbon Dating Gets a Reset

Yet the Anatolian Plate is sliding east and west along the Eurasian Plate. As can be imagined, this is a very unstable part of the world and the site of some of the major catastrophic disasters recorded in the history of man. The yellow circles are areas where earthquakes greater than 7. Thou didst cause the deeps to tremble and didst alarm the spheres.

Ancient Egyptian literature is characterized by a wide diversity of types and subject matter; it dates from the Old Kingdom (c. BC) into the Greco-Roman period (after BC).

Though they may know it as carbon dating or carbon 14 dating, there is an understood notion that when anything old is found, like an ancient artifact, it can be radiocarbon dated to find out exactly how old it is. Yet, as simple and straightforward as this seems, the process of dating objects via radiocarbon is far from simple and straightforward.

Here I will present what radiocarbon is, the dating methods, the assumptions that govern them, and the known discrepancies that plague the method. With a thorough understanding of this dating method, it is my opinion that its ingenious fundamentals can be appreciated, yet greatly overshadowed by its limitations. Radiocarbon Every day cosmic rays bombard our atmosphere. These cosmic rays release free neutrons which zip around our nitrogen rich atmosphere at high velocities.

As the Carbon 14 slowly descends into our lower atmosphere it bonds with oxygen becoming the very unpopular CO2 greenhouse gas Bowman, Though the vast majority of CO2 is comprised of the more common and stable isotope of carbon, carbon 12 C12 , a small fraction of CO2 one in million , contains C As is common fact, plants photosynthesize and consume CO2, fixing its carbon.

Gospel of the Egyptians

How did Libby test his method and find out if it worked correctly? Libby tested the new radiocarbon method on carbon samples from prehistoric Egypt whose age was known. A sample of acacia wood from the tomb of the pharoah Zoser was dated for example. Zoser lived during the 3rd Dynasty in Egypt BC. The results they obtained indicated this was the case.

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David Down, Unveiling the Kings of Israel: By Vern Crisler, David Down is a tour guide, editor, and “field archaeologist” who claims to have excavated in Israel for a number of years but who does not appear to have an advanced degree in archaeology. John Ashton is a chemist who specializes in food nutrition and research.

Since they lack academic degrees in Egyptology or Archaeology, it is not really clear to me why either of these authors felt themselves qualified to write a history of Egypt or of Israel. Nevertheless, the authors have managed to produce a couple of glossy books about the history of Egypt and Israel, and the pictures alone will be enough for some to justify buying these books. The authors provide fairly standard accounts of the history of Egypt and Israel, but as far as chronology goes, they are content merely to proffer suggestions by chronological revisionist Donovan Courville and Immanuel Velikovsky.

Thankfully, in their book on Egypt the authors provide a table of correlations between Egypt and biblical events based on their revised chronology ff. One does not have to wade through a lot of information in order to find out where they place the Exodus or the time of Solomon, for instance. Taken together I think both of these books would provide a fairly good introduction to the history of Egypt and Israel for high school students, and may be of some interest to the general reader who is unfamiliar with the subject.